Bruxism is characterized by grinding of the teeth and clenching of the jaw which can occur either during the day or at night. It is essentially a parafunctional activity and most humans suffer from it at some point or other in their lives.
Causes of Bruxism
While it can also occur during daytime, Bruxism is one of the commonly known sleep disorders and causes most of its damage while the person is asleep. The accompanying clenching and grinding results from a malfunctioning chewing reflex. For the ones who don’t suffer from Bruxism this reflex is turned off while sleeping. For the sufferers turning off of the reflex nerve control center in the brain results in the reflex pathways to becoming active leading to Bruxism.
Typically, front 6 upper and lower teeth ( also known as the incisors and canines) grind against each other laterally. This lateral action results in undue strain on the medial pterygoid muscles and the temporomandibular joints. There are multiple of common symptoms of Bruxism including Earache, depression, headaches, eating disorders and anxiety. Bruxism often accompanies chronic stress, Alzheimer’s disease and alcohol abuse.
It is frequently misdiagnosed or not diagnosed at all, because it is only one of several potential causes of tooth wear. It requires a trained professional to tell the difference between bruxing wear and wear caused by common causes such as overly aggressive brushing, acidic soft drinks and abrasive foods.
A BiteStrip® is an economical device used to diagnose bruxism at home. The device itself is a small electromyography which senses and monitors any activity in the jaw muscles during sleep. The frequency and severity of the condition can then be assessed and the best treatment plan can be formulated.
Why Should You Opt for Bruxism Treatment
Gum recession and tooth loss. Bruxism is one of the leading causes of gum recession and tooth loss; firstly because it damages the soft tissue directly, and secondly because it leads to loose teeth and deep pockets where bacteria can colonize and destroy the supporting bone.
Occlusal trauma. The abnormal wear patterns on the occlusal (chewing) surfaces can lead to fractures in the teeth, which may require restorative treatment.
Arthritis. In severe and chronic cases, bruxing can eventually lead to painful arthritis in the temporomandibular (TMJ) joints (the joints that allow the jaw to open smoothly).
Myofascial pain. The grinding associated with bruxism can eventually shorten and blunt the teeth. This can lead to muscle pain in the myofascial region and debilitating headaches.
Treatment Options for Bruxism
There is no single cure for bruxism, though a variety of helpful devices and tools are available. Here are some common ways in which bruxism is treated:
Mouthguard. An acrylic mouthguard (also mouth guard, nightguard, night guard, biteguard, bite guard) can be designed from tooth impressions to minimize the abrasive action of tooth surfaces during normal sleep. Mouthguards should be worn on a long-term basis to help prevent tooth damage, damage to the temporomandibular joint and help to stabilize the occlusion.
NTI-tss device. This device is fitted by a health professional and only covers the front teeth. The goal of the NTI-tss is to prevent the grinding of the rear molars by limiting the contraction of the temporalis muscle.
Botox.® Botox® can be injected into the muscles to relax and weaken them. Botox® is an excellent treatment for bruxism because it weakens the muscles enough to prevent the grinding, but not enough to interfere with everyday functions like chewing and speaking.
Other methods of treatment include relaxation exercises, stress management education and biofeedback mechanisms. When the bruxing is under control, there are a variety of dental procedures such as crowns, gum grafts and crown lengthening that can restore a pleasant aesthetic appearance to the smile.